Friday, September 4, 2020

History Of Prisons Essay Example For Students

History Of Prisons Essay PHCCHistory of PrisonsIntro to CorrectionsDale L. Smith02-01-01BIBLIOGRAPHY Dreidger, Sharon Doyle, and Kevin Marron. Canada: Special ReportThe Prison System. Macleans. Toronto, Canada. April 15,1996 p.24+. Haiti: Human Rights Practices, 1995. Nation Reports of Human Rights Practices for 1995. Walk 1996. Hongda, Harry W. A Grim Organ Harvest in Chinas Prisons World Press Review. June 1995. p. 22-23. Lawrence, David Aguila. In Latin America, Revolting Jail Life. Christian Science Monitor. April 14, 1997. p.6. Jail. Microsoft Encarta. 1993. Quick, Richard. Criminal Justice New Internationalist. August 1996. p.7-22. The Russian Federation: Broken Promises and Shattered Lives. Absolution International News. London, England. June 1996 p.3-6. Turkey: Prisoners on Hunger Strike Close to Death-Stop Ill Treatment of Prisoners Says Amnesty International. June 13,1996. Rundown OF ILLUSTRATIONS1.Illustration 1 n2.Illustration 2 n3.Illustration 3 n4.Illustration 4 n5.Illustration 5 nLIST OF TABLES1.Table 1 n2.Table 2 n3.Table 3 n4.Table 4 n5.Table 5 nThe PRISONS According to Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia, jail is an organization for the imprisonment of people indicted for criminal offenses. From the beginning of time, most social orders have fabricated spots in which to hold people blamed for criminal acts pending some type of preliminary. Confining people after a preliminary as discipline for their violations is moderately new. During the fifteenth century in Europe, the punishments for violations were some type of beating like whippings for less genuine wrongdoings and execution or subjugation for progressively genuine offenses. In mid sixteenth century England, transients and insignificant wrongdoers were focused on remedial establishments known as workhouses. During the rule of Queen Elizabeth I, the administration shipped sentenced criminals to the English settlements. The discipline was thought of as the hard work to which the detainees were dispatched. It wasnt until the seventeenth century that that people sentenced for wrongdoings could be rebuffed by repression and discharged after a timeframe. During the seventeenth century, England and other European nations like Italy, Germany, and the Netherlands started detaining indebted individuals, reprobate adolescents, minor misdemeanant, and criminals. Early prisons were generally dim, packed, and grimy. Detainees were crowded together unpredictably, wit h no division of people, the youthful and old, the sentenced and unconvicted, or the normal and crazy. In America the idea of detainment came in light of profound strict convictions. The English Quaker William Penn annulled capital punishment for most violations in the late 1600s and subbed detainment. The Pennsylvania lawmaking body supplanted capitalpunishment with detainment as the essential discipline for criminals in 1789. By the mid-nineteenth century most states had gone with the same pattern. Two models of detainment facilities rose in the United States. The principal framework started in Auburn State Prison in New York in 1817. Detainees cooperated in complete quiet during the day, yet were housed independently around evening time. Exacting order was upheld, and violators were dependent upon extreme retaliations. The subsequent model, the Pennsylvania framework, started in 1829 in the Eastern State Penitentiary at Cherry Hill, depended on isolation for convicts by day and night. There was a great deal of discussion about the two frameworks. Individuals who supported the Penns ylvania model concentrated on its desire for recovery, the hypothesis being that a criminal alone in a cell with just a Bible to peruse would get contrite. This is the place the term prison originated from. The Auburn framework was scrutinized as being virtual bondage, since detainees were frequently given something to do for private business visionaries who had contracted with the state for their work. Detainees of the framework were never paid leaving a decent benefit for the entrepreneurs and the state. Individuals who had confidence in the Auburn framework said that the inertness of the detainees in the Cherry Hill prison here and there caused franticness. The action of the detainees and the benefits from their work implied the state didnt need to fund the jail. Most states embraced the Auburn methodology. European nations embraced the Pennsylvania model. .ub3029c1f1daefad6dad1b8a2f41f2c67 , .ub3029c1f1daefad6dad1b8a2f41f2c67 .postImageUrl , .ub3029c1f1daefad6dad1b8a2f41f2c67 .focused content zone { min-tallness: 80px; position: relative; } .ub3029c1f1daefad6dad1b8a2f41f2c67 , .ub3029c1f1daefad6dad1b8a2f41f2c67:hover , .ub3029c1f1daefad6dad1b8a2f41f2c67:visited , .ub3029c1f1daefad6dad1b8a2f41f2c67:active { border:0!important; } .ub3029c1f1daefad6dad1b8a2f41f2c67 .clearfix:after { content: ; show: table; clear: both; } .ub3029c1f1daefad6dad1b8a2f41f2c67 { show: square; change: foundation shading 250ms; webkit-progress: foundation shading 250ms; width: 100%; obscurity: 1; change: murkiness 250ms; webkit-change: haziness 250ms; foundation shading: #95A5A6; } .ub3029c1f1daefad6dad1b8a2f41f2c67:active , .ub3029c1f1daefad6dad1b8a2f41f2c67:hover { mistiness: 1; change: darkness 250ms; webkit-progress: haziness 250ms; foundation shading: #2C3E50; } .ub3029c1f1daefad6dad1b8a2f41f2c67 .focused content region { width: 100%; position: relative; } .ub3029c1f1daefad6dad1b8a2f41f2c67 .ctaText { outskirt base: 0 strong #fff; shading: #2980B9; text dimension: 16px; textual style weight: striking; edge: 0; cushioning: 0; text-enhancement: underline; } .ub3029c1f1daefad6dad1b8a2f41f2c67 .postTitle { shading: #FFFFFF; text dimension: 16px; textual style weight: 600; edge: 0; cushioning: 0; width: 100%; } .ub3029c1f1daefad6dad1b8a2f41f2c67 .ctaButton { foundation shading: #7F8C8D!important; shading: #2980B9; fringe: none; outskirt span: 3px; box-shadow: none; text dimension: 14px; textual style weight: intense; line-stature: 26px; moz-outskirt range: 3px; text-adjust: focus; text-enrichment: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-tallness: 80px; foundation: url( arrow.png)no-rehash; position: supreme; right: 0; top: 0; } .ub3029c1f1daefad6dad1b8a2f41f2c67:hover .ctaButton { foundation shading: #34495E!important; } .ub3029c1f1daefad 6dad1b8a2f41f2c67 .focused content { show: table; tallness: 80px; cushioning left: 18px; top: 0; } .ub3029c1f1daefad6dad1b8a2f41f2c67-content { show: table-cell; edge: 0; cushioning: 0; cushioning right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-adjust: center; width: 100%; } .ub3029c1f1daefad6dad1b8a2f41f2c67:after { content: ; show: square; clear: both; } READ: Martin luther lord jr. 9 EssayPrivate business had consistently been against the modern Auburn model jail. They considered the unpaid jail work out of line rivalry. Early worker's organizations tested the thought. As the work impact developed in the late nineteenth and mid twentieth hundreds of years, sensational changes happened. By the 1920s work and philanthropic pundits accomplished their objective of seriously confining jail

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Free Essays on Here I Stand

Martin Luther was destined to Hans and Margaretta Luther in 1483. As per Bainton Martin Luther was â€Å"highly regarded at home. His folks looked to him as a chap of splendid parts who should turn into a legal scholar, make a prosperous marriage, and bolster them in their old age.† (p.24,25). Which clarifies why Hans Luther was resentful about his child for taking the cowl. Bainton clarifies Luther’s explanations behind this. In the main part of the book, The Vow, as Luther gets struck by helping he shouts out â€Å"St. Anne help me! I will end up being a monk.† Luther was resolved to keep his pledge and he felt this would win his salvation. Bainton clarifies why procuring ones salvation was significant in these times†¦ The Church trained that no reasonable individual would hold up until his deathbed to make a demonstration of humility and argue for effortlessness. From the earliest starting point to end the main secure course was to lay hold of each help the congregation brought to the table: ceremonies, journeys, guilty pleasures, the intervention of the saints†¦And what better might he be able to (Luther) do than take the cowl?† p. 30-32 This is the piece of Luther I regard the most, his true situation to salvation. I let it out is by all accounts driven by dread, which was imbedded into him from a youthful age and through school and for an amazing duration, however never the less I discover the drive and inspiration of his situation truly outstanding. Notwithstanding Luther's profundity of severe trustworthiness in his own battle to know God a considerable lot of the individuals in America today would in any case be living in times when what the minister said is the thing that God said. Which I need to concede, I feel numerous individuals are content being coddled. Be that as it may, for those of utilization won't settle for the expression of the cleric Luther is a pioneer. Luther incapably battled his way toward God through works. His dad drew out into the open that conditions encompassing his pledge could be crafted by God, however it could likewise be th... Free Essays on Here I Stand Free Essays on Here I Stand Martin Luther was destined to Hans and Margaretta Luther in 1483. As indicated by Bainton Martin Luther was â€Å"highly regarded at home. His folks looked to him as a chap of splendid parts who should turn into a legal adviser, make a prosperous marriage, and bolster them in their old age.† (p.24,25). Which clarifies why Hans Luther was angry with his child for taking the cowl. Bainton clarifies Luther’s purposes behind this. In the principal part of the book, The Vow, as Luther gets struck by helping he shouts out â€Å"St. Anne help me! I will end up being a monk.† Luther was resolved to keep his pledge and he felt this would procure his salvation. Bainton clarifies why procuring ones salvation was significant in these times†¦ The Church instructed that no reasonable individual would hold up until his deathbed to make a demonstration of humility and argue for elegance. From the earliest starting point to end the main secure course was to lay hold of each help the congregation brought to the table: ceremonies, journeys, extravagances, the mediation of the saints†¦And what better might he be able to (Luther) do than take the cowl?† p. 30-32 This is the piece of Luther I regard the most, his earnest predicament to salvation. I let it be known is by all accounts driven by dread, which was imbedded into him from an exceptionally youthful age and through school and for an incredible duration, however never the less I discover the drive and inspiration of his situation truly commendable. Notwithstanding Luther's profundity of fierce genuineness in his own battle to know God a considerable lot of the individuals in America today would at present be living in times when what the cleric said is the thing that God said. Which I need to concede, I feel numerous individuals are content being coddled. However, for those of utilization won't settle for the expression of the cleric Luther is a pioneer. Luther ineffectively battled his way toward God through works. His dad drew out into the open that conditions encompassing his pledge could be crafted by God, however it could likewise be th...

Friday, August 21, 2020

Price Determination under a Freely Operating Market System Essay

Value Determination under a Freely Operating Market System - Essay Example This aides in the assurance of the sort of merchandise to be delivered and the amount of that specific that is required to be created. Presently, regardless of whether a shopper of the merchandise would get it or not helps in the assurance of the amount of a specific sort of products to be created (Haber, 2000, p.10). The ongoing fall in costs of private properties in UK has been clarified utilizing the market hypothesis in this investigation. Assurance of Price in a Market A market can be viewed as made out of two of its crucial segments. They are: gracefully and request. The cost of a product is resolved through the connection of these two market powers, for example gracefully and request of the item in the market. As talked about before showcase is where trade of wares happens between the providers and purchasers. Anyway this kind of exchange can happen just when both the dealers and purchasers have settled upon a cost for the specific ware that is engaged with the exchange. Grace fully can be characterized as the amount of merchandise or administrations a business firm has in offer available to be purchased in the market and it is offered at a pre-decided value set by the business firm. Then again, request is the amount of merchandise or administrations which the shoppers are eager to purchase at a predetermined value (Goldberg, 2000, p.72). In an unreservedly working business sector framework, the dealers and purchasers are allowed to do the exchange of merchandise and ventures at a commonly concurred cost and they are not interceded by some other people or substances. In this way in a free market the costs of the merchandise or administrations are unreservedly set and depend on the flexibly and request of the executed products or administrations. A portion of the key determinants of a free market economy are: a) Prices decided uninhibitedly, b) Rights and motivating forces related with the property, c) Freedom of exchanging at home or abroad, d) Government ’s job, and e) the private organisation’s job (Taylor, 2006, p.14-15). Balance Price Figure-1 appeared underneath speaks to two unique bends which are the flexibly and request bends. Both of these bends are found to cross at a point which is known as the purpose of harmony. It is really the market’s harmony (Government of Alberta: Agriculture and Rural Development, 2012). The comparing amount and cost of items at the purpose of harmony are known as balance amount and the balance cost. It is the activities taken by the dealers and the purchasers which help in driving the market towards this balance cost or at the end of the day the balance of the flexibly and request (Mankiw, 2011, p.77). Figure-1 Equilibrium Price Supply Equilibrium Price Demand Equilibrium Quantity Source: (Author’s Creation) Residential Property Prices in UK It has been seen that the costs of private properties in United Kingdom (UK) have fallen significantly in the course of recent yea rs. This watched wonder can be clarified through the market hypothesis including the two market parts, in particular, flexibly and request of the private properties in UK. The world economy alongside UK encountered a lodging blast

Cultural Differences in the Workplace: Australia and US

Social Differences in the Workplace: Australia and US Tim Johnson Anthropologist, James Downs, characterized culture as â€Å"a mental guide which guides us in our relations to our environmental factors and to other people† (Linsell, 2011). This definition bolsters that culture impacts the manner by which people carry on. America and Australia are associated from numerous points of view, and both countries’ achievement is unmitigatedly overwhelming even at a snappy look. The two nations are unquestionably increasingly better than most of nations around the world, and an explanation behind that is their way of life sets better expectations in their endeavors to proceed towards enormity. In spite of the fact that there are numerous similitudes between the Australian and U.S. working environment culture, there are qualities that represent the differentiations between the two societies. The United States and Australia have fundamentally the same as childhoods, which is the consequence of their connections to the British settlements. The United States was shaped because of outsiders escaping from strict oppression, while Australia was settled by government laborers and convicts. The two nations have comparative societies on the grounds that the progenitors were prevalently Anglo-Saxon/Caucasians, and both â€Å"cultures developed through liberal movement policies† (Linsell, 2011). The explanation the two countries delineate similitudes in culture is on the grounds that they share association with British inclusion. The Australian work environment culture varies from most, however Australia has discovered approaches to advance greatness while as yet advancing joy. Australia has a network arranged legacy and is supporters of populism (Linsell, 2011). Libertarianism can be characterized as balance for all of man as for financial matters, governmental issues, and society. The Australian working environment is additionally exceptionally multicultural, and one in each 4 specialists is from another culture (â€Å"Spectrum MRC†, 2012). Australia additionally grasps various practices contrasted with the United States. These practices are reflected in their occasionally casual conferences and meetings. The familiarity can be delineated through their non-verbal correspondence, for example, vicinity when communicating and non-verbal communication (â€Å"Spectrum MRC†, 2012). To an outcast the Australian working environment culture may appear to be casual, yet inside numerous residential assoc iations this is normal practice. Australian associations incline toward self-sufficiency and adaptability in the work environment (Linsell, 2011), in light of the fact that it advances a positive climate that outcomes in higher profitability. The United States working environment culture is fixated on order control authority and is progression based, in light of the fact that fairness isn't esteemed as significant (Linsell, 2011). The chain of importance that the U.S. rehearses makes rivalry inside the work environment to make progress toward progress, while supporting a narrow minded attitude among the representatives. The United States takes a â€Å"business first approach†, and favors when representatives separate their business and individual lives (â€Å"U.S. Business Culture†, 2011). This methodology measurably energizes a progressively engaged working environment, yet at the expense of representatives not discovering happiness in their work and with their partners. Right up 'til the present time, America is still normally alluded to as â€Å"The Melting Pot† despite the fact that the people that utilization this term don't have a clue about the genuine beginning. This term was instituted in the start of the twentieth Century to describe how the settlers were all combining and making one mixed culture. Most people inappropriately utilize the term to portray various societies basically living among each other. Australia is great on the grounds that there are such a large number of different societies, however the entirety of the way of life stay interesting and abstain from converging in to one. The absence of consolidating advances singularity, which helps in the residents and thus the workers getting better created and keen to their positions. The American culture is tied in with exhibiting attestation and never showing shortcoming, since shortcoming is regularly connected with disappointment. Despite the fact that the United States displays predominance and their practices are compelling, they penance the individual associations that guide to make higher camaraderie. The working environment culture of Australia and the U.S. adopt various strategies to how they work their associations, yet likenesses cover in the two societies. The likeness that is prevalent in the two nations is the debate of sexual orientation disparity (Leahy, 2011). Right now ladies in the workforce aren’t â€Å"able to get to and appreciate similar prizes, assets, and opportunities† (Workplace Gender Equality Agency, 2013) that men get in a similar work environment. Indeed, even in present day society separation despite everything reverberates and ladies are unjustifiably compelled to manage this foul play. The term most usually used to portray the sexual orientation imbalance present in the work environment is â€Å"the glass ceiling† (Cotter, Hermsen, Ovadia, Vanneman, 2001). The biased based impediment implies a woman’s capacity to see to a further point than she can really reach. Regardless of whether the normal lady endeavored to move in the d irection of a higher positioning position, she will regularly run over trouble when attempting to progress to that position. Ladies are as yet confronting separation in work (Doughney, 2007) and more men arrive at more generously compensated official and specific positions (Ross-Smith McGraw, 2010). Australia and the United States have likenesses and contrasts, yet despite the fact that they are both worldwide pioneers they despite everything have space to extend and transform from their current unfair practices. My involvement with an Australian working environment has been enlightening and driven me to a culture that has numerous positive contrasts from my own. A part of Australian culture that varies from my encounters in the United States is the craving to advance a network based working environment. At Greenwood Dental the representatives were totally inviting and affable; this was the starting to my acknowledgment in to their working environment family. Subsequent to interning for a couple of days, they started to see my difficult hard working attitude and my readiness to help anyone’s needs. My assurance to profit their business in any capacity conceivable outlined to them that I was not kidding about turning into a piece of their group, and starting there on I was seen as a colleague. A prime case of their mutual persona is found in their mid-day break room. The lounge has characteristics like a family room in a family unit and they likewise carry nourishment for everybody to s hare. This may not appear a lot, yet advancing this sort of working environment prompted a gainful and amicable condition. Commonly in the United States, everybody minds their own business and accomplishes their own work, however in Australia they have confidence in a municipal based culture. Australian culture favors uniformity and during my time at Greenwood, I never felt overlooked or like an untouchable. In the U.S. it is basic to feel secluded and unacknowledged, in light of the fact that everybody is attempting to propel themselves as opposed to working cooperatively. All the representatives know their situation inside the organization and that the dental specialists are the need, however everyone’s position is vital so as to maintain a fruitful business. Greenwood Dental was comprised of a wide range of societies and it was energizing working with such a different gathering of people. It is basic that people lower themselves in extra societies so as to get others and considerably more significantly create themselves. Greenwood Dental’s staff comprises of workers from seven unique nations, so being inundated in such a socially rich condition helped my improvement towards better understanding and regard for uniformity. Australia and the United States originate from related foundations and accordingly the way of life share tantamount qualities, yet while examining working environment culture the differentiation is immensely clear. The Australian work environment culture will in general be increasingly mutual and adaptable, while the U.S. energizes chain of importance and rivalry. A positive working environment culture is a consequence of inspiration, profitability, quality work, and maintenance (â€Å"Building a Positive†, 2013) and as I would see it Australia is better at obtaining the positive work environment as for America. Australian culture takes a stab at energy and fulfillment, while the United States endeavors to improve just their monetary status. Franklin Delano Roosevelt, 32nd President of the United States, once stated, â€Å"Happiness isn't the minor ownership of cash; it lies in the delight of accomplishment, in the rush of imaginative effort†. After my encounters in Aus tralia, I can declare that Australia’s work environment as for the U.S. has an increasingly positive, pleasant, and by and large better air to be a piece of. The Australian working environment culture decides to forfeit consistency so as to take into consideration singularity and bliss. Book index Disposition Works. (2013). Building a positive work environment culture. Recovered fromâ Cotter, D., Hermsen, J., Ovadia, S., Vanneman, R. (2001). The biased based impediment effect. The University of North Carolina Press,â 80(2), 655-682. Recovered fromâ Cross Border Management. Cross Border Management LLC, (2011). Us business culture. Retrieved from site: Doughney, J. (2007). Ladies and administration in corporate australia: inquiries of inclination andâ adaptive preference.Advancing Women in Leadership Journal,â 24, Retrieved fromâ Leahy, M. (2011). Ladies and work in australia. Australian Policy Online, 1-4. Recovered fromâ Linsell, D. (2011, Sept 07). Australia a

Saturday, July 11, 2020

College Essay Topics For Application

College Essay Topics For ApplicationPreparing a college essay can be an overwhelming task, especially when you think of all the different college essay topics for application. There are hundreds of topics that you will need to prepare, and there are so many to choose from. This article will help you narrow down your search for college essay topics for application and help you find your exact topic.Your first step is to consider how much time you have to prepare, since a lot of colleges expect you to spend several weeks writing a college essay. If you are short on time, you can consider doing a few things at a time. You may start with a topic that interests you and work on building up from there.Another option is to set aside some time to write one essay. Make sure you have time to research and write your essay before the deadline. The most important thing is to take the time to write it correctly. You want to get it right, so it will impress the admissions officers that are reviewing your application.One way to go about finding college essay topics for application is to gather a list of things you like. If you are really interested in something, you will find yourself digging deeper into your topic. It's also good to have something a little less serious for when the writing begins. This gives you some room to create a personal essay that appeals to you.Popular college essay topics for application include 'What Would My Life Be Like If I Started A Business'What Happens When the Pause for Admissions Ends?' You could also include topics such as 'What Makes A Successful College Student? ',' What To Look For When Choosing A College Professor? ', 'Why Do Students Fail In College', 'What Is The Best Way To Show My Grades Are Poor?' .Topics that you should avoid including ones with 'My Responsibility to My Parents' (This is another topic that you should never do) or 'Who is The Greatest Of All Time? ', because these can be construed as too personal. For example, if you decide to write a column for a student publication, you do not want to include 'How To Raise The Kids'What Did I Do Yesterday to Make My Mom Happy'. Focus on your major and the experiences that make you special, and stay away from things that show you are getting frustrated or complaining.Writing a college essay can be a good idea even if you don't have time to do it alone. You may still want to get some assistance, such as a tutor. When you know that you are not getting the assistance you need, you will be more likely to go through with it and actually finish the assignment, and you will have done well to show your ability to complete an assignment.Finally, if you are considering using college essay topics for application, check out writing resources online. They can help you narrow down your list and give you pointers for topics to include in your essay. You will also find them helpful in choosing the best college essay topics for application.

Wednesday, June 24, 2020

Painting With Words Language as Art in The Tempest - Literature Essay Samples

In Shakespeares romance, The Tempest, Miranda instructs Caliban, I endowed thy purposes / With words that made them known (I.ii.357-8), affirming the power of language to transform the insubstantial into a forceful and purposeful entity. As Prospero conjures up tempests, masques, and spells, Shakespeare creates a linguistic pageant of lush imagery, tense staccato exchanges, straight-forward narration, and lyrical songs to intensify different moments in and expose major themes of the play. The Tempest begins with an abrupt, monosyllabic exchange between the Boatswain and Master that evolves into a series of confused, frenzied conversations  ­ tempests of language  ­ that convey the helplessness, fear, and consternation faced by the crew. The play moves toward elevated poetry delightful music, and masques of mysticism, all of which converge in Prosperos poignant valedictory speech in which he surrenders his magic powers  ­ after asserting his authority as an artist  ­ and p roceeds to accomplish the prescribed reconciliations that resolve the drama:Ye elves of hills, brooks, standing lakes, and groves,And ye that on the sands with printless footDo chase the ebbing Neptune, and do fly himWhen he comes back; you demi-puppets thatBy moonshine do the green sour ringlets make,Whereof the ewe not bites; and you whose pastimeIs to make midnight mushrumps, that rejoiceTo hear the solemn curfew; by whose aid(Weak masters though ye be) I have bedimmedThe noontide sun, called forth the mutinous winds,And twixt the green sea and the azured vaultSet roaring war; to the read rattling thunderHave I given fire and rifted Joves stout oakWith his own bolt; the strong-based promontoryHave I made shake and by the spurs plucked upThe pine and cedar; graves at my commandHave waked their sleepers, oped, and let em forthBy my so potent art. But this rough magicI here abjure; and when I have requiredSome heavenly music (which even now I do)To work mine end upon their senses t hatThis airy charm is for, Ill break my staff,Bury it certain fathoms in the earth,And deeper than did ever plummet soundIll drown my book. (V.i.33-57)The sound patterns and connotations of Shakespeares language convey Prosperos temperament. Prospero begins by poetically describing the magical inspiration of fantastical creatures, ascends into a charging affirmation of his power to perform the impossible, and concludes in a gentle tone as he lays his magic powers to rest.Prospero employs images of magic to confirm the potency and beauty of artistic power. In calling upon elves (33) and demi-puppets (36), or dwarves, both existent only in the imagination  ­ he conveys arts capacity to transcend nature and humanity with airy wonder. Prospero refers to moonshine (37), suggesting the enchantment of the demi-puppets' activities, and connoting a sense of the unsubstantial or imaginary, which both he and Shakespeare enliven through art. Elves, demi-puppets, and moonshine illustrate th e supernatural elements of Prosperos artistry and contribute a sense of playfulness and jollity to the serious, tragicomic drama. By recalling the influence of these supernatural powers, Prospero affirms his ability to create out of nothing, to perform the impossible using his artistic powers. Just as the demi-puppets craft green sour ringlets, Prospero creates tempests, spells, and mini-dramas. Shakespeares image of hills, brooks, standing lakes, and groves relates the beauty of nature reflected in the supernatural creations. Prospero echoes this poetic beauty with cadences of sound that resonate with lulling musicality: elves of hills, brooks, standing lakes, and groves, / And ye that on the sands with printless footŠ / puppets Š / Šsour ringlets (33-4, 36-7). The consonance gives the lines a flowing rhythm and incantatory tone that reinforce the mysticism of both the speech and the play.While his speech begins in a mood of happy fantasy, Prospero soon reminds the au dience of his artistic powers that, paradoxically, constitute his whole being and also lead to his exile from Naples and temporary unawareness of Calibans death plots upon him. While he credits the elves and dwarves for their aid of inspiration, he labels them weak masters (41) in a parenthetical aside that sarcastically subverts their abilities by comparing them with the magical powers of Prospero, the authoritative master. Prospero leaps into a cascading monologue, comprised of images of power, which presents a portrait of the artist as an old man who seeks recognition of his magic. Prospero uses a form of the pronoun I twelve times during the speech, which confirms his obsession with his own powers and continues the egotism he displays throughout the play, namely in his dealings with Ariel (I.ii.244-304) and Caliban (I.ii.324-9, 344-8, 365-71).Prosperos ability to accomplish the impossible reveals an irony in the speech, for who can realistically bedim / The noontide sun, call forth the mutinous winds (41-2), or set roaring roar (44) between the heavens and the earth? Prospero affirms art as a vehicle of creativity and transcendence. No task is too arduous or inconceivable for his capacious imagination to construe. Shakespeare also creates a sense of urgency within Prospero, who delivers this twenty line speech in two sentences (33-50, 50-57). Phrases like mutinous winds (42), roaring war, red rattling thunder (44), and rifted Joves stout oak (45) convey Prosperos brewing desire to convey the power of his magic. The alliteration in roaring war and red rattling creates a mood of madness, which characterizes Prospero as a magician, frantic in his outpourings of emotion. Images of natural disaster  ­ winds, earthquakes, and the opening of graves  ­ parallel the plays frenetic speech patterns and illustrate the artists influence upon the audiences imagination. Shakespeare juxtaposes the beauty of the green sea and the azured vault (43) with the roari ng war and red rattling thunder created by Prospero, which enforces the power of art to transcend reality. While Prospero cannot literally make the earth tremble or the winds blow violently, he can shake the promontory (45-6) of his enemies imaginations, and, within this realm, can order graves to open, spirits to descend, and tempests to occur. Roaring connotes riotous and noisy revelry (Oxford English Dictionary), which reverts to the plays opening scene of noisy confusion caused by the creation of the tempest. Prosperos noisy revelry in this speech confirms his need to emphasize the artists power to realize the impossible. Shakespeare characterizes both Prosperos magic artistry and his own linguistic artistry as potent, suggesting authority, great power, and commanding influence, all of which Prospero embodies throughout the play. He becomes a potentate, both the designer of the plays dramatic schemes and the emblem of its acute artistry. The language of Prosperos speech ill ustrates his fluctuating emotions: complacent happiness, powerful authority, and collected tranquility. After his charging defense of his artistic powers, Prospero demonstrates his control over the dramatic action. But (50) signals a shift in temperament, as Prospero decides to abjure (51) his rough magic (50) and incite the play to its anticipated conclusion. In a parenthetical aside, he admits that even the magician who, by the spurs plucked up / The pine and cedar (47-8), needs the assistance of some heavenly music (52) in accomplishing his tasks. This reference, (which even now I do) (52), opposes his previous aside, (Weak masters though ye be) (41), illustrating Prosperos declining artistic vitality and anticipating the dramatic surrender of his powers.Prospero imparts a commanding authority even in his artistic farewell. He does not delicately set his magic wand aside, but break[s] [his] staff (54) and bur[ies] it certain fathoms in the earth (55). Similarly, he does not gently place his book of magic in his library, but drown[s] it deeper than did ever plummet sound (56-7). The hyperbole illustrates Prosperos obsession with both his art and himself, which he consolidates as a single entity. Despite his powerful emotions conveyed through metaphor, overstatement, and sound patterns, Prospero fades into nothingness by the plays conclusion. His epilogue is a plea for applause and recognition: rather than boasting about his magical powers, he begs, Release me from my bands (E.i.9). This speech illustrates Prosperos decline from mystical happiness and powerful emotion to a gentle, controlled abandonment of his magic, and leaves the audience questioning whether, after all of his efforts to reconcile his enemies, Prospero really prospers.Prospero notes the airy charm[s] (54) that his magical powers effect upon Ferdinand, Miranda, and his enemies. Airy connotes something both imaginary and visionary, but also composed of air (Oxford English Dictionary ). Prospero gives air, or substance, to the unreal through his magic. Similarly, Shakespeares drama exists only in the imagination until the reader or actor enlivens it by infusing physical breath to empower the words on the page. Art gives breath to the imagined, the unknown, and the seemingly impossible. Just as Prospero the magician bedims / The noontide sun (41-2) and creates the rough magic (50) of the tempest, Shakespeare the poet incarnates the unsubstantial through his language. His gentle breath fills the sails (E.i.11-12) of the readers imagination, setting them afloat in the adventurous waters of artistic creativity. On one level, Prosperos speech initiates his apex as an artistic magician and propels the ensuing resolutions in the larger drama. On another, however, it symbolizes the poets power to paint with words, to create an ordered depiction of the imaginary, and to give, as Theseus insists in A Midsummer Nights Dream, to airy nothing, / A local habitation and a name (V.i.16-17). Works CitedAiry. The Oxford English Dictionary. 2nd ed. 1989.Potent. The Oxford English Dictionary. 2nd ed. 1989.Roaring. The Oxford English Dictionary. 2nd ed. 1989.Shakespeare, William. A Midsummer Nights Dream. Ed. Wolfgang Clemen. New York: Penguin, 1998.Shakespeare, William. The Tempest. Ed. Robert Langbaum. New York: Signet, 1998.